Aquinas on Friendship

Written by Daniel Schwartz

This book examines the views on friendship of the great medieval philosopher Thomas Aquinas. For Aquinas, friendship is the ideal type of relationship that rational beings should cultivate. The book argues that Aquinas fundamentally revised some of the main features of Aristotle's paradigmatic account of friendship so as to accommodate the case of friendship between radically unequal beings: man and God. As a result, Aquinas presented a broader view of friendship than Aristotle's, allowing for a higher extent of disagreement, lack of mutual understanding, and inequality between friends.

The Political Morality of the Late Scholastics - Civil Life, War and Confidence

Written by Daniel Schwartz

The late scholastics, writing in the Baroque and Early Modern periods, discussed a wide variety of moral questions relating to political life in times of both peace and war. Is it ever permissible to bribe voters? Can tax evasion be morally justified? What are the moral duties of artists? Is it acceptable to fight in a war one believes to be unjust? May we surrender innocents to the enemy if it is necessary to save the state? These questions are no less relevant for philosophers and politicians today than they were for late scholastic thinkers. By bringing into play the opinions and arguments of numerous authors, many of them little known or entirely forgotten, this book is the first to provide an in-depth treatment of the dynamic and controversial nature of late scholastic applied moral thinking which demonstrates its richness and diversity.


Interpreting Suárez

Edited by Daniel Schwartz

Francisco Suárez is arguably the most important Neo-Scholastic philosopher and a vital link in the chain leading from medieval philosophy to that of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. Long neglected by the Anglo-Saxon philosophical community, this sixteenth-century Jesuit theologian is now an object of intense scholarly attention. In this volume, Daniel Schwartz brings together essays by leading specialists which provide detailed treatment of some key themes of Francisco Suárez's philosophical work: God, metaphysics, meta-ethics, the human soul, action, ethics and law, justice and war. The authors assess the force of Suárez's arguments, set them within their wider argumentative context and single out influences and appraise competing interpretations. The book is a useful resource for scholars and students of philosophy, theology, philosophy of religion and history of political thought and provides a rich bibliography of secondary literature.


Published Work

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Authored Books

Aquinas on Friendship (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)

The Political Morality of the Late Scholastics: Civic Life, War, and Conscience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019)

Edited Books

Interpreting Suarez: Critical Essays (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

Articles in Peer-Reviewed Journals

‘Necessity Historically Considered’, Journal of Moral Philosophy (2020)


‘Discovery Rights and the Arctic’, International Theory (2019)


‘Just Persuasion Baroque Electoral Ethics’, Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses, 95(2019)595-614.


Thomas Aquinas and Antonio de Córdoba on Self-Defence: Saving Yourself as a Private End’, British Journal for the History of Philosophy, 26(2018)1045-1063.



‘Against Substitutive Harm’ Journal of Applied Philosophy 33(2016)411-424.


‘Scandal and Moral Demandingness in the Late Scholastics’, British Journal of the History of Philosophy, 23(2015)256-276.


‘Probabilism Reconsidered: Deference to Experts, Types of Uncertainty, and Medicines’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 75(2014)373-393.


‘Probabilism, Just War and Sovereign Supremacy in the Work of Gabriel Vázquez’, History of Political Thought, 34(2013)177-94.


‘Perfectionism and Subsidiarity: Comments on John Finnis’s Human Rights & Common Good’, Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies, 2 (2013)1-11.


‘Grotius and the Moral Standing of the Society of Nations’, Journal of the History of International Law, 14(2012)124-146.


‘The Justice of Peace Treaties’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 20(2012)273-292.


'Developmentalism, Practical Guidance and Power-Fetishism: A Comment on Kraut’s What is Good and Why', Yyun, The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly, 58(2009)1-10.


‘Lotteries, Personal Identity, and Distributive Justice’, European Journal of Philosophy, 218(2010)44-261.


 ‘Alberdi and the Mutation of French Doctrinaire Liberalism in Argentina’, History of Political Thought 30(2009)140-165.


‘Popular Nationalism in Argentina: A reaction to Liberalism?’, Journal of Political Ideologies 14(2009)93-114.


‘Francisco Suárez on Consent and Political Obligation’, Vivarium, International Journal for the Philosophy and Intellectual Life of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, 48(2008)59-81.


“‘The Principle of the Defence of the Innocent and the Conquest of America:’ Save those Dragged Towards Death’”, Journal of the History of International Law, 9(2007)263-291.


Spanish version in Cuadernos del Claeh, 96-97(2008)151-183.


‘Friendship as a Reason for Equality’, CRISPP: Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 10(2007)167-180.


‘Francisco Suárez y la Tradición del Contrato Social’, Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 10(2005)119-138.


 ‘Friendship and the Circumstances of Justice in Aquinas’, The Review of Politics 66(2004)35-52.


‘Should we will what God wills?: friendship with God and conformity of wills according to Aquinas’, Philosophy and Theology 15(2003) 403-419.


‘Aquinas on the requirements of concord: “Concord is a union of wills, not of opinions”’, Review of Metaphysics 57(2003)25-42.

Book Chapters, Encyclopaedia Entries

‘The Late Scholastics on Jus Post Bellum’ in Harald Braun and Eric de Bom eds., A Companion to the Spanish Scholastics (Brill) forthcoming

 ‘Pedro Hurtado de Mendoza and the Moriscos’ in Daniel Novotny ed., A Companion to Hurtado de Mendoza (Brill) forthcoming.

 ‘Caramuel on the Right of Discovery’ in Jorg Tellkamp ed., A Companion to Early Modern Spanish Imperial Political and Social Thought (Leiden: Brill, 2020) pp. 252-273.

‘Late-Scholastic Just War Theory’ in Seth Lazar and Helen Frowe eds., Oxford Handbook of Just War Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017) 122-144.

 ‘Francisco Suárez’, Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, with Christopher Shields, published Summer 2014 revised 2019.

‘Introduction’ in Interpreting Suarez: Critical Essays, pp. 1-18.

‘Suárez on Distributive Justice’ in Interpreting Suarez: Critical Essays, pp. 163-184.
‘Friendship and Equality’ in G.M. Smith and P. King eds. Friendship in Politics: Theorizing Amity in and between States (London: Routledge: 2007) ISBN: 9780415420815

Book Reviews

Mary M. Keys, Aquinas, Aristotle, and the Promise of the Common Good (Cambridge University Press, 2007), British Journal of the History of Philosophy, 16(2008)814-817.

José Angel García Cuadrado, ed., Los fundamentos antropológicos de la ley en Suárez at Journal of Jesuit Studies, 2(2015)153-155.